DNA is also said as deoxyribonucleic acid. DNA test is also used to find and detect mutation in genes. This is mostly used for forensic science purposes. These tests are done on the request of an individual in order to prove identity.
DNA testing is done by different methods as:
– Electrophoresis: It is a process used to separate mixed population of DNA and RNA fragments by length. Thus length of DNA and RNA fragment is estimated to separate protein charge. This method is helpful in DNA testing
– Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP).
– Polymerase chain reaction (PCR): copies of DNA sequences are modified to generate many hundreds of copies of DNA.
How DNA Testing Is Done?
Genetic test usually refers to human DNA, RNA, chromosomes, and proteins used to check abnormalities related to inherited disorder. It tells us which no of chromosome is causing abnormality. It also detects the bands of chromosome that are faulty.
Genetic testing is usually done on hairs, skin, blood, and amniotic fluid or other tissue. A process called buccal smear uses a cotton swab to collect a sample of cells from the inside surface of cheek cells. A sample is then sent to the laboratory to check the chromosomal changes, DNA, and proteins.
Following are the different types and uses of genetic testing:
1. Forensic testing.
2. Predictive and presymptomatic testing: Predictive testing requires the specific disease causing mutation gene to be identified in a family member. If the result of these test are positive, you will have risk of developing a particular disease. They are used to detect mutations like Hungtington’s disease. Mutations linked to breast cancer are also detected.
3. Preimplantation testing: It is the genetic testing of embryos before implantation. It is most common in vitro fertilization. Sometimes oocytes are also detected prior to fertilization if there are any abnormalities. Testing determines if the embryo is free from every disorder and genetic abnormality before implanting.
4. Parental testing: It is also called as paternity test and is used to determine whether an individual is biological parent of other individual. All the doubts regarding biological parents are cleared.
5. Carrier testing: This testing is used to determine that a person is a carrier of specific autosomal recessive disease. It may be a X-linked recessive disease. The carrier does not show any symptoms of disease but there is a complete chance of transferring that disease to the next generation.
6. Diagnostic testing: It is particularly used to diagnose and detect a particular disorder or a suspected disease in symptomatic person.
7. Newborn screening: It identifies disorders at early stages of life and treatments are done as soon as possible. Newborn screening test is the screening tests as a small amount is taken by pricking baby’s heel. If the test result comes positive then parents are required to do further testing to know about further genetic problems. It helps in screening of mutations at early level that can be treated once detected.